Neurorehabilitation is an interdisciplinary area in neurology, physical and rehabilitation medicine. It is a comprehensive therapeutic approach aimed at patients with disease or damage to the nervous system. It is an active process that improves the quality of life, assists functional and cognitive recovery of the patient and with the active support of the therapist, helps to adapt to the new conditions to integrate successfully and plump into the social environment.
Contemporary neurorehabilitation is based on the theory of neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity, the ability of the brain to change over the life of the individual, such as the brain activity associated with a function can be transferred to another location. As early as 1762, the Swiss philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote in his book, “Emil, or Learning,” that the organization of the brain is influenced by our experience and that we need to “exercise” our senses and mental abilities by exercising the muscles yours. Human beings are changing throughout their lives because of their “ability to improve”.
The aim of this approach is to help restore the nervous system from disability, reduce or compensate for the functional changes that result from helping the patient return to the most optimal level of functional independence while improving the overall physical, emotional and social condition.
Neurorehabilitation is appropriate for the treatment of:
- Vascular disorders such as ischemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, subdural hematoma and transient ischemic attacks
- Infections such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio and cerebral abscesses
- Trauma, injury to the brain and spinal cord
- Structural or neuromuscular diseases such as Bell paralysis, cervical spondylosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, brain or spinal cord tumors, peripheral neuropathy, muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome
- Functional disorders such as headache, dizziness and neuralgia
- Degenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer’s disease
Neurorehabilitation is designed to respond to the patient’s needs depending on the particular problem or illness that can cause weakness, impaired balance, reduced mobility, and this limits and diminishes the patient’s ability in day-to-day activities. Limited physical activity caused by certain neurological conditions can also lead to impaired cardiac and pulmonary function, fatigue, and in some cases social isolation.
Neurorehabilitation helps to improve the quality of life of the patient and his family. Their active participation is important for the success of the therapeutic program. In the healing plan, specific approaches such as Bobath therapy, PNF, mirror therapy and other neurostimulation, facilitating, and specific-oriented methods aimed at improving balance, coordination, balance, postural control, gait, strength, and overall functional activity and patient involvement are used.
Neurorehabilitation is aimed at stimulating the skills and abilities of people with disabilities, at the level of participation and activity. It encourages them to work at the most optimal level of independence. This helps them to restore their self-esteem, their positive attitude to the new conditions of organizing the activities of everyday life, to adapt and to be complete.