Neurorehabilitation is an interdisciplinary field in neurology, physical and rehabilitation medicine. It is a holistic therapeutic approach aimed at patients with disease or damage to the nervous system. This is an active process that improves the quality of life, supports the functional and cognitive recovery of the patient and with the active support of the therapist, helps to adapt to new conditions to integrate successfully and fully into the social environment.
Modern neurorehabilitation is based on the theory of neuroplasticity – also known as brain plasticity – the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual’s life, such as the brain activity associated with a function can be transferred elsewhere. As early as 1762, the Swiss philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote in his book “Emile, or about learning”, that the organization of the brain is influenced by our experience and that we need to “exercise” our senses and mental as we exercise our muscles. Human beings change throughout their lives because of their “ability to improve.”
The aim of this approach is to help the nervous system recover from the damage, to reduce or compensate for the functional changes that result from it, to help the patient regain the most optimal level of functional independence while improving his overall physical, emotional and social condition.
Neurorehabilitation is suitable for the treatment of:
- Vascular disorders such as ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, subdural hematoma and transient ischemic attacks
- Infections such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio and brain abscesses
- Trauma, injury to the brain and spinal cord
- Structural or neuromuscular diseases such as Bell’s palsy, cervical spondylosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, brain or spinal cord tumours, peripheral neuropathy, muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis and Guillain-Barré syndrome
- Functional disorders such as headache, dizziness and neuralgia
- Degenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer’s disease
Neurorehabilitation is designed to meet the needs of the patient depending on the specific problem or disease, which can cause weakness, imbalance, reduced mobility, and this limits and reduces the patient’s ability in his daily activities. The limited physical activity caused by certain neurological conditions can also lead to impaired heart and lung function, fatigue, and in some cases social isolation.
Neurorehabilitation helps to improve the quality of life of the patient and his family. Their active participation is important for the success of the therapeutic program. The treatment plan uses specific approaches such as Bobath therapy, PNF, mirror therapy and other neurostimulation, facilitating and specifically oriented methods aimed at improving balance, coordination, balance, postural control, gait, strength, as well as the overall functional activity and participation of the patient.
Neurorehabilitation is aimed at stimulating the skills and abilities of people with disabilities, at the level of participation and activity. It encourages them to work at the most optimal level of independence possible. In this way it helps them to restore their self-confidence, their positive attitude to the new conditions of organizing everyday activities, to adapt and be full.